(2000). The automatic appraisal mechanism is able to detect certain stimuli, which Ekman calls elicitors. The MCAT (Medical College Admission Test) … This led to apopular medical classification of emotions: John of la Rochelle, a Fra… Typically, the goal is to explain why emotions are present in humans today by referring to natural selection that occurred some time in the past. Different theories exist regarding how and why people experience emotion. A syndrome is a collection of all of the appropriate responses of a particular emotion, any of which may at certain times constitute an emotion response, but none of which are essential or necessary for that emotion syndrome. In R. B. Felson & J. T. Tedeschi (Eds.). There is, however, disagreement about how simple or complex the early part of the emotion process might be, which has lead to competing cognitive and non-cognitive theories. Moreover, this emotion was “the major spiritual failing to which those who should have been dutiful succumbed” and “to feel it at all was a sin” (p. 221). Ekman and Griffiths both believe that this system accounts for a significant number of the emotions that humans experience, but neither think that it describes all emotions. Boucher, J. D. & Brandt, M. E. (1981). It is in light of these factors that an individual evaluates the event. Ekman appears to have been aware of the modular nature of this system when he wrote, “The difficulty experienced when trying to interfere with the operation of the affect programme, the speed of its operation, its capability to initiate responses that are hard to halt voluntarily, is what is meant by out-of-control quality to the subjective experiences of some emotions” (1977, p. 58). This section will outline some of the most well-known theories explaining our emotional experience and provide insight into the biological bases of emotion. Mood states may not be consciously recognized and do not carry the intentionality that is associated with emotion (Beedie, Terry, Lane, & Devonport, 2011). This is a claim for which there is some evidence, although except for facial expressions, the current evidence is not very strong (see Ekman, 1999; Levenson, Ekman, & Friesen, 1990; Prinz, 2004b). Some brief examples to show how these ideas have been developed are also reviewed. Damasio’s somatic feedback theory. Hopkins, J., Marcus, M., & Campbell, S. B. Richardson, R. C. (1996). (See also the translation by Stephen of Antioch, V.38, p. Social functionalism and the evolution of emotions. According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but simply syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling, behavior, and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. None of these events share any physical feature or property, but all of them can cause the same response. More specifically, this theory suggests that emotions occur when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus. Judging in this context is the mental ability that individuals use when they acknowledge a particular experience or the existence of a particular state of the world; what Martha Nussbaum calls “assent[ing] to an appearance” (2004, p. 191). According to Cosmides and Tooby, the emotion of sexual jealousy, deals with these problems in the following ways: Physiological processes are prepared for such things as violence, sperm competition, and the withdrawal of investment; the goal of deterring, injuring, or murdering the rival emerges; the goal of punishing, deterring, or deserting the mate appears; the desire to make oneself more competitively attractive to alternative mates emerges; memory is activated to reanalyze the past; confident assessments of the past are transformed into doubts; the general estimate of the reliability and trustworthiness of the opposite sex  (or indeed everyone) may decline; associated shame programs may be triggered to search for situations in which the individual can publicly demonstrate acts of violence or punishment that work to counteract an (imagined or real) social perception of weakness; and so on (2000, p. 101). After receiving these injections, participants waited in a room with someone else they thought was another subject in the research project. In particular, there are emotion words in other languages that do not correspond directly or even closely to emotion words in English. According to Damasio, these feelings are crucial in helping us make decisions and choose our actions (see Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, 1994, 1996). Emotion: Biological fact or social construction? In Griffiths’ theory, the other emotions belong to different categories—the higher-cognitive emotions and the socially constructed emotions—and in some cases a single vernacular term, for example, anger, will have instances that belong to different categories. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. Figure 1. Wood, B., & Collard, M. (1999). In K. R. Scherer, A. Schorr, & T. Johnstone (Eds.). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. Two observations demonstrate some of the motivation for the cognitive position. For example, one person may be relieved to be laid-off from her job, while a co-worker greets the same news with dread. Emotions typically occur in social settings and during interpersonal transactions—many, if not most, emotions are caused by other people and social relationships. Two other prominent views arise from the work of Robert Zajonc and Joseph LeDoux. Email: gregory.s.johnson@drexel.edu Table 1. For example, grief is a syndrome. In order to know that a trait is an adaptation, we have to be familiar with the circumstances under which the selection occurred (Brandon, 1990; Richardson, 1996). Many of the theories, however, fall somewhere in between, agreeing about some features of emotion, while disagreeing about others. The theories in the first group claim that the emotions were selected for in early hominids. These norms and values influence what the appropriate objects of emotion are (that is, what events should make a person angry, happy, jealous, and so on), and they also influence how emotions should be expressed. Related to Ekman’s notion of an elicitor, Griffiths suggests that this system includes a “biased learning mechanism,” which allows it to easily learn some things, but makes it difficult for it to learn others. Most of these theories suggest that this selection occurred in response to problems that arose because of the social environment in which these organisms lived (Tooby & Cosmides, 1990; Cosmides & Tooby, 2000; Nesse, 1990; Keltner et al., 2006). An outline of the social constructionist viewpoint. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for feelings.. This table lists the eight basic emotions in Robert Plutchik theory. 57–58). Cognitive theories account for these two observations by proposing that the way in which the individual evaluates the stimulus determines the emotion that is elicited. All of these various components are linked together for an individual by principles of organization. Moreover, emotions appear to serve an important function, which has led many to think that the certain emotions have been selected to deal with particular problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter. Griffiths, P. E. (2004). Were there marked differences in physiological arousal associated with each emotional state? Psychology Theories of Emotion. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. Evolutionary explanations of emotions. The theory states that emotions are separable from physiological reactions to events. Emotions: A general psychoevolutionary theory. The appraisal components and the different values that each component can take are motivational state (appetitive, aversive), situational state (motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent), probability (certain, uncertain, unknown), power (strong, weak), and agency (self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused). There are definitely more than three theories of emotions. 124k members in the Mcat community. The way in which he describes this process is just as central to the non-cognitive theories as it is to his own: “the nervous system of every living thing is but a bundle of predispositions to react in particular ways upon the contact of particular features of the environment. As an example of how specific and recognizable these norms, values, and expectations sometimes are, one can consider “emotion rules” that Americans often follow. Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. In the Pantegni(Theor. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. Anger should follow closely the provocation and not endure longer than is needed to correct the situation (typically a few hours or days, at most) (pp. The affect programs are also encapsulated, or cut off from other mental processes (1997, pp. There are different theories of emotion to explain what emotions are and how they operate. According to Plutchik, the emotions are similar to traits such as DNA or lungs in air breathing animals—traits that are so important that they arose once and have been conserved ever since. James Averill (1993; see also 1982) has identified the rules for anger, some of which are listed here: Once these rules are specified by society (either implicitly or explicitly), they become, Averill says, “part of our ‘second nature'” (1993, p. 184), and so we follow them without any deliberate effort. Once you develop the process, you just do it without thinking about it. Accidie was a negative emotion that Harré and Finlay-Jones describe as “boredom, dejection, or even disgust with fulfilling one’s religious duty” (Harré & Finlay-Jones, 1986, p. 221). Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses. Here, Damasio’s account differs from Prinz’s because Damasio takes it that the emotion process does include cognitive evaluations, at least for most emotions. The words emotion and mood are sometimes used interchangeably, but psychologists use these words to refer to two different things. For example, an individual’s envy of someone who is successful (or his guilt over having cheated someone) are both emotions that have been prescribed by the individual’s society so that the individual will take the appropriate attitude towards success and cheating. Catherine Lutz translates fago as “compassion/love/sadness” and claims that it is unlike any single western emotion (1988). A person has the right (duty) to become angry at intentional wrongdoing or at unintentional misdeeds if those misdeeds are correctable (for example, due to negligence, carelessness, or oversight). The following are some of the features that distinguish emotion from moods. Review the theories of emotion in the following Crash Course Psychology video. However, your brain predicting a churning stomach while you were waiting for medical test results could lead your brain to construct worry. Cannon didn’t agree with several aspects of the James-Lange theory of emotion. Parkinson, B. Ekman, P. (1992). Since (B) and (D) co-occur, the feeling will be accompanied by the information that triggered the bodily response. An argument for basic emotions. Evolutionary psychology and the emotions. (Eds.). In reality, the other person was a confederate of the researcher. Emotions are often thought to be consciously experienced and intentional. Thus, in many cases emotions may be best understood as interactions between people, rather than simply as one individual’s response to a particular stimulus (Parkinson, 1996). Mauss and her colleagues studied automatic emotion regulation (AER), which refers to the non-deliberate control of emotions. Hence, according to James, when the appropriate type of stimulus is perceived (that is a bear), this automatically causes a bodily response (trembling, raised heart rate, and so forth), and the individual’s awareness of this bodily response is the fear. Every individual has beliefs, as well as goals, personal tendencies, and desires in place before the emotion causing event is encountered. Bringing these parts together into one coherent whole are the mental constructs that allow an individual to construe all of these various elements as grief. Nussbaum, M. (2004). In any case, it is the feedback that the mind (or brain) gets from the body that makes the event an emotion. Postpartum depression: A critical review. Interference with ongoing activity might be characteristic of some anger elicitors (1977, pp. Roseman, I. J. Plutchik’s theory also accounts for more than just these eight emotions. One tentative conclusion that can now be drawn is that it is unlikely that any single theory will prevail anytime soon, especially since not all of these theories are in direct competition with each other. Another common one is the Opponent-Process theory. For example, Cosmides and Tooby suggest that sexual jealousy is an adaptation that occurred in “our hunger-gatherer ancestors” (2000, p. 100). Embodied emotions. Emotions can be understood as either states or as processes. This section will review the way in which Ekman and Griffiths describe the non-cognitive process. Nevertheless, experience it people did. The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. The cognitive appraisal theorist Klaus Scherer claims that each appraisal component directs specific bodily changes, and so his answer to this question is affirmative (2001); Griffiths says that is likely that each affect program emotion has a unique bodily response profile (1997, pp. (1984). In any case, the consequence is that there can be a feeling even if the body is not involved. Like the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories emphasize the idea that the way in which an individual evaluates or appraises the stimulus determines the emotion. It also consists of beliefs about the nature of the eliciting stimuli and perhaps some natural (that is, non-social) elements. Note that James’ theory overlaps with the non-cognitive theories insofar as James suggests that when the stimulus is perceived, a bodily response is triggered automatically or reflexively (1884, p. 195–97). It … The next section will examine a theory that holds that all emotions are non-cognitive, a position that Ekman and Griffiths do not defend. Deonna and Teroni argue that both judgmentalist and perceptual theories of emotion make the mistake of identifying emotions in terms of content rather than in terms of attitude or mode. This position is defended by Jenefer Robinson (1995, 2004, 2005). The same is almost certainly true of the neural mechanisms that control those movements” (Griffiths, 2004, p. 238). The confederate engaged in scripted displays of euphoric or angry behavior (Schachter & Singer, 1962). An individual labels both his response at a funeral and his response to his favorite baseball team losing as grief, even if the two responses have nothing in common. The basic idea, as Robert Solomon puts it, is that an emotion is “a basic judgment about our Selves and our place in our world, the projection of the values and ideals, structures and mythologies, according to which we live and through which we experience our lives” (1993, p. 126). Walter Cannon and Philip Bard developed another of the main theories of emotions that we study today. The second main approach to explaining the emotions begins with the idea that emotions are social constructions. Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses: shock, crying, refusing to cry (that is, keeping a stiff upper lip), declining to eat, neglecting basic responsibilities, and so on. Bill ’ s theory ( 1984 ), which was one of several groups something unexpected happens triggering of non-cognitive. Red, or the arousal ( intensity of the bodily response them from each other situation not. 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