H�. 0000042890 00000 n Find materials and ir spectroscopy notes and textbook notes taken by using this range of light Authenticating your ir spectroscopy notes and answers from this page or absorbed by your clips. Raman Scattering . The Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique used in condensed matter physics and chemistry to measure the wavelength and the intensity of inelastically scattered light from molecules.. In this application note, Edinburgh Instruments highlights how Raman spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, can be used to identify cooking oil adulteration. This text offers an open-learning approach to Raman spectroscopy providing detail on instrumentation, applications and discussions questions throughout the book. Si 10 cm-1 shift per % strain polarisation of Raman peak crystal symmetry and orientation e.g. /T 319673 In chapter 7 of that volume, Raman spectroscopy was addressed by Nasdala et al. Raman spectroscopy is an optical scattering technique that is widely used for the identification of materials and the characterization of their properties. Raman Spectroscopy. %���� Technical Application Note Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopy StellarNet, Inc. Tampa, Fl USA Tony Rizzuto, PhD March 16, 2017 Raman Spectroscopy has been a pillar of the Physical Chemistry community since its discovery in 1928 by its namesake C. V. Raman. INTRODUCTION Raman spectroscopy was discovered by C. V. Raman in 1928 It is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibration , rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. A ω/λ/E Let’s look at a typical absorption spectrum. /Size 179 Transmission Reflection Absorption Luminescence Elastic Scattering Inelastic Scattering . Raman spectroscopy is a widely used spectroscopic method. It has become a ubiquitous tool in modern spectroscopy, biophysics, microscopy, geochemistry, and analytical chemistry. The Raman Effect. www.alchemyst.f2o.org IR Spectroscopy cf. An example of a Raman sp ectrum. 0000002342 00000 n endobj 1. 0000045002 00000 n Insights on the nature of adsorbates formed upon methanol flow can be afforded by Raman spectroscopy as well. MoS 2, MoO 3 changes in frequency of Raman peak stress/strai n state e.g. 0000001908 00000 n Basics of vibrational spectroscopy 1.1. Raman Scattering. Raman spectra are usually shown in wavenumbers as a shift from the Rayleigh scattered line. /Text /Encoding<> INSTRUMENTATION IN RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY: ELEMENTARY THEORY AND PRACTICE J.Dubessy, M.C. <>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> /MediaBox[0 0 431 649] ISBN: 978-0-12-386984-5 (hardback) 1. 0000044452 00000 n It covers procedures for probing bond activation, H-bonded systems, molecular dynamical mechanisms, vibrational dephasing, simple liquids. 154 0 obj In this experiment we will study both kinds of applications. Raman Spectroscopy Rayleigh and Raman scattering (Stokes and anti-Stokes) as seen on energy level diagram. Raman spectroscopy to examine aqueous solutions, samples inside glass con-tainers and samples without any preparation, have led to a rapid growth in the application of the technique. 5.33 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Spectroscopy Page 3 . (Emitted in all directions) Includes: Fluorescence (emission from excited electronic singlet states) Phosphorescence (emission from excited electronic triplet states) Raman Scattering (light scattering involving vibrational transition) An associated spectrum is included, note the Raman lines intensity are greatly exaggerated. endobj Raman spectroscopy is another vibrational technique, currently gaining popularity because recent technological advances have made the instrumentation more accessible. E.M. wave interacting with an oscillating electron. <> <> The information provided by Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering process, whereas IR spectroscopy relies on absorption of light. Raman Spectroscopy. This introduction gives you an overview of the theory of Raman spectroscopy and an introduction to the primary components of a Raman spectrometer. <>>> Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2015 , 17 (33) , 21094-21103. 0000001199 00000 n In practice, modern Raman spectroscopy is simple. With these course notes, the author hopes to fill this gap and include information about Raman instrumentation and how it is interpreted. (2004). endobj 0000001887 00000 n 0000030818 00000 n Der Raman-Spektroskopie zu Grunde liegende Effekt wurde 1923 von A. Smekal vorausgesagt und 1928 von dem indischen Physiker C.V. Raman (1888-1970, Nobelpreis 1930) entdeckt. INTRODUCTION Raman spectroscopy was discovered by C. V. Raman in 1928 It is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibration , … MIT Department of Physics. << Raman Spectroscopy Raman Application Note Microplastics Abstract Plastic pollution from fishing gear is a global problem that harms the environment. selection rules), but practical aspects are usually disregarded. PREPARE BY: Bhaumik R Bavishi (15MPH301) NIRMA UNIVERSITY 2. The relative intensities of the peaks can be used to give Raman Spectroscopy for C hemic a1 Analysis RICHARD L. McCREERY The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio A ... Notes on Conventions The definitions of several symbols and certain conventions are not used uniformly in the Raman spectroscopy literature, and some choices were . endobj The p ositions bands are 0 k. Their displacemen ts from 0 giv e the frequencies of normal vibrations. /O 151 Instrumental Developments. Raman spectroscopy is a type of spectroscopy that works on the basis of Raman effect and finds applications in various fields like in nanotechnology to understand the structure of nanowires, in biology and medicine where the low-frequency DNAs and proteins are studied and chemistry to understand the structure of molecules and their bonds. 0000031094 00000 n Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. Raman’s spectroscopy is commonly used in the branch of chemistry to provide a fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. Chem 524 Lecture Notes –Raman (Section 17)— 2013 For HTML of 2005 notes, click here XIII. These Notes are copyright Alex Moss 2003. Spectroscopic methods are numerous and have been described in a previous volume (6) in the EMU Notes in Mineralogy series, edited by A. Beran & E. Libowitzky (2004). Raman Scattering (light scattering involving vibrational transition) 3) Optical Rotation: Change of phase of light incident on sample (rotation of polarization) Let’s work on describing absorption. SER-active systems: - Electrochemically roughened electrodes - Colloidal metal particles - Evaporated (sputtered) or (electro-)chemically deposited metal films 2.3. Download Ir Spectroscopy Lecture Notes pdf. Normal mode analysis 1.3. Download Ultrafast infrared and raman spectroscopy PDF. IR spectroscopy measures transitions between molecular vibrational energy levels as a result of the absorption of mid-IR radiation. <> Raman intensities Wednesday, November 18, 2020 Edinburgh Instruments Ltd. Observation: molecules adsorbed on rough (nm-scale) Ag or Au surface experience an enhancement of the Raman scattering – surface enhanced Raman (SER) effect. Raman spectroscopy is highly selective, as is the complementary method of FTIR , which allows it to identify and differentiate molecules and chemical species that are very similar, and measure small changes in samples. 601 0000000015 00000 n 150 0 obj Highly specific spectra of materials can be obtained which can be compared and identified by using spectral databases. FT-Raman spectroscopy was introduced in 1986 and it is now available as a bolt-on to many FT-IR machines. Nobel prize for his work. /Root 149 0 R 0000031479 00000 n Resonance Raman spectroscopy. Can I do Raman spectroscopy on mixtures? Probing molecular vibrations 1.3.1. Raman spectroscopy (/ ˈ r ɑː m ən /); (named after Indian physicist C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique typically used to determine vibrational modes of molecules, although rotational and other low-frequency modes of systems may also be observed. 2. Raman Spectroscopy. 0000043273 00000 n <> 0000020387 00000 n (Dated: August 21, 2018) Raman spectroscopy uses the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light to probe molecular structure. I. <> 148 31 %PDF-1.5 16) A. Elastic Scattering o = s - basis for Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) experiments (see Notes 19) 1) Raleigh Scattering — … Analytical Chemistry 2014 , 86 (8) , 3764-3772. Transmission Reflection Absorption Luminescence Elastic Scattering Inelastic Scattering . Raman shifts are plotted from left (low shift) to … Raman signal is a million th in tensit y of the inciden t ligh t. In the ab o v e gure Ra yleigh band is sho wn in middle. /L 322678 Infrared intensities 1.5. /ProcSet[/PDF Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy Application Notes. 5.33 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Spectroscopy Page 3 Raman spectroscopy 1. 2-Raman Lecture19_clh_class.ppt - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. stream Classroom various compounds and textbook notes and drop files to the feynman lectures. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy 1.3.2. Raman spectroscopy utilizing a microscope for laser excitation and Raman light collection offers that highest Raman light collection efficiencies. ��ϲ���8�΢Ûp�A�%�M��k� �$G�1�4ziQ�q>��43���� .�rJ�~��Xߵh�"��@Ow�tן��H* �7 Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy. FT-Raman spectroscopy was introduced in 1986 and it is now available as a bolt-on to many FT-IR machines. 0000020049 00000 n Technical Note 101b Optical Techniques for Chemical Identification FTIR and Raman spectroscopy measure the interaction of energy with the molecular bonds in a sample of an unknown material. The information provided by Raman spectroscopy results from a light scattering process, whereas IR spectroscopy relies on absorption of light. >> Raman, Fluorescence and IR Scattering Absorption and emission Absorption. Raman spectroscopy uses a single wavelength laser source to excite the electrons in a sample. p. cm. Raman sp ectrum is sho wn in Fig. Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy. In situ Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on working electrodes: spectroelectrochemical characterization of water oxidation electrocatalysts. A��)¿����;�� �J��G��^�&m�}��QP�[QHN�ѡa؎eK+��v���5I')��Sy��MD�iᆲOU�V�H(�4+���P���geV�b�g6[5��%Hc�J/�?����wY4+�,��p"���j�O��T��)1>kط���~��L4;�4�L��%���@�|a�e�q�Љ8�Zz�j]1В���\�k�����8�g�4F^�r�T�O�|V� ~���Á���Ih�P�1��6&N�Z��6 G�wOQ����z{�A-�C���ᄬ)��O A̪���7�RGM��P_�� ���]��c�-��:�L��7&QF�eNN�n�jr��(l�SJҔoJ���Ȱ5M��F�v"�V ��Z?Ĥ �5[bl?��o7L9ܫ�W�҈r��4. Raman scattering was first observed in 1928 and was used to investigate the vibrational states of many molecules in the 1930s. Raman spectroscopy uses the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light to probe molecular structure. 178 0 obj endobj 2. Raman spectroscopy also has important scientific applications in studying molecular structure. %%EOF What happens when light falls on a material? The rotational and vibrational energy levels of the molecule in the sample determine … Its frequency 0 used as the origin of Raman sp ectrum. First published observation: "A new type of Secondary Radiation” C. V. Raman and K. S. Krishnan. As discussed, when an atom or molecule is brought into an Raman spectroscopy is a molecular spectroscopic technique that utilizes the interaction of light with matter to gain insight into a material's make up or characteristics, like FTIR. 0000045213 00000 n Today, education in Raman spectroscopy is often limited to theoretical aspects (e.g. 0000002880 00000 n Ad preferences anytime under payment with an ir spectroscopy lecture notes and extend over the atmosphere is not have reached the functional groups and the red. Today, education in Raman spectroscopy is often limited to theoretical aspects (e.g. /N 21 Raman Spectroscopy . 2. 0000019622 00000 n endobj Recycling of damaged or abandoned fishing gear is one way of mitigating the issue, however the exact nature of the polymer must be known in order to identify the correct recycling stream. [Michael D Fayer;] -- A discussion of ultrafast infrared and Raman measurements. ���_lW����9�g[=5������d���\��QY�N��﫺��Zh���:_@6n� �r��:˗@]_�b��, /Thumb 110 0 R Initially, spectroscopic methods based on … /ExtGState<> Molecular Light Scattering and Raman Spectroscopy (Read Ch. 0000031922 00000 n Raman scattering (or the Raman effect) was discovered in 1928 by V. C. Raman who won the. %PDF-1.4 What happens when light falls on a material? 149 0 obj If the substance being studied is illuminated by monochromatic light, for example from a laser, the spectrum of the scattered light consists of a strong line (the exciting line) of the same frequency as the incident illumination together with weaker lines on … %���� /Resources <> Raman Spectroscopy Polychromatic excitation Absorption Absolute Frequencies (high v resolution) Resonant Technique Strong effect Î sensitive Monochromatic excitation Scattering << GRATING DIFFRACTION × = × × Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry to provide a structural fingerprint by which molecules can be identified. No notes for slide. Raman Spectroscopy. Download Ir Spectroscopy Lecture Notes doc. Abstract: In the final step of the formulation process, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have to control their products to check if the … endobj �7�Fb!nW���N�/ժZ�&9���s����ms�l�՛��f?�����A0̫^SR�z�H�A�������Oh�q)4�;qQ�< TQ�&��O�j�xq��E�V|��yL��+&^ � 177 0 obj startxref • Information on rotational and vibrational levels • Raman effect small but accessible by use of lasers • Complementary information to IR spectroscopy phomonuclear diatomic molecules, low frequency range • In situ analysis of organic and inorganic compounds • Analysis of aqueous solutions and solids (powders) In this experiment we will study both kinds of applications. 0000003375 00000 n Introduction to Raman Spectroscopy Application Notes. PREFACE xi required to retain internal consistency in this book. 5.33 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Spectroscopy Page 3 2) Emission: Excitation induces emission of light from the sample (usually of different frequency). Raman Spectroscopy Pharmaceutical compounds distribution and cosmetic products analyzed by confocal Raman spectroscopy Application Note Pharmaceutical & Cosmetic RA78 Thibault Brulé and Céline Eypert HORIBA FRANCE SAS, Palaiseau, France. >> Raman spectroscopy is the study of matter by the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light. Raman Spectroscopy Enables Noninvasive Biochemical Characterization and Identification of the Stage of Healing of a Wound. /Type/Page Nature, 121, 501, March 31, 1928. Raman is a vibrational spectroscopy technique where a single wavelength laser is focused on a sample. Raman spectroscopy is an optical scattering technique that is widely used for the identification of materials and the characterization of their properties. 0000044872 00000 n Frequency of oscillation is given by Coulomb energy:!2 0 = k C/m e e.m. field adds a driving force at e.m. frequency!,F= eE 0 sin(!t). Caumon, F. Rull, S. Sharma EMU-CNRS International School: Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Earth Sciences and cultural Heritage : 14-16 th of june 2012 A ω/λ/E Let’s look at a typical absorption spectrum. However, in contrast to IR‑spectroscopy, no absorption effects are observed but scattering of light. Raman spectroscopy Information from Raman Spectroscopy characteristic Raman frequencies composition of material e.g. 0000032247 00000 n 148 0 obj Raman spectroscopy is a molecular spectroscopy based on inelastically scattered light (Raman scattering). 0000043888 00000 n /Parent 134 0 R Landmarks of Raman Spectroscopy (HH view) Kramers-Heisenberg-Dirac Dispersion Formula Placzek Polarizability Theory … CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PRINCIPLE INSTRUMENTATION DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RAMAN VS IR METHODS TYPES APPLICATION 3. The rotational and vibrational energy levels of the molecule in the sample determine the magnitude of the frequency shifts. /Contents 176 0 R >> Infrared and raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation/Peter Larkin. /CropBox[0 0 431 649] x�c```b``Y�� Title. 151 0 obj 3 0 obj In Raman scattering, the frequency of the scattered light is shifted from the frequency of the incident beam. Geological Applications of Raman Spectroscopy (i) Fluid Inclusions (ii) Structure of Silicate glasses (iii) Mineral Identifications in Thin Sections (iv) Effect of High Pressure on Minerals Summary. Ultrafast infrared and Raman spectroscopy. These roots are very telling, because in molecular spectroscopy you use light to interrogate matter, but you actually never see the molecules, only their influence on the light. Raman spectroscopy is very important practical tool for quickly identifying molecules and miner-als. 0000001062 00000 n 2 0 obj www.deliciousfood4u.com . Raman. Raman is a highly effective method for reliable identification of an unknown substance based on its underlying chemistry. 0000019240 00000 n Scribd is the … Raman Spectroscopy: Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique which is used to analyze vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system. 0000044743 00000 n m2 Surface enhanced Raman scattering cross sec tions vary widely in literature reports. Rapid Screening of Semiprecious Gemstones by Raman Spectroscopy Subject: Application Note 51737. Interestingly, interferometers might have been used earlier for Raman spectroscopy if the laser had not been invented, as their large circular aperture could have coped advantageously with the extended source area of the mercury arc. Raman Spectroscopy . If there are a number of different compounds in a mixture, the resulting Raman spectrum will be a superposition of the spectra of each of the components. endobj The Raman spectra recorded upon heating in pure MeOH/He flow are presented in Figure 2. >> CLASSICAL MODEL. 0000018801 00000 n 0000042652 00000 n >> <>stream <> Created Date: 2/10/2009 9:59:22 A… When properly designed, Raman microscopes allow Raman spectroscopy with very high lateral spatial resolution, minimal depth of field and the highest possible laser energy density for a given laser power. Carb on tetrac hloride. endobj It relies on inelastic scattering (i.e Raman scattering) of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. First Raman Spectra: TECHNICAL NOTE Raman and FTIR Spectroscopy Complementary Technologies for Chemical and Explosives Identification Introduction First responders faced with an unknown chemical substance have a number of immediate challenges, including choosing the most appropriate technology to assess the situation. A.S. Gilbert, in Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry (Third Edition), 2017. Raman spectroscopy is a molecular spectroscopic technique that utilizes the interaction of light with matter to gain insight into a material's make up or characteristics, like FTIR. /ID[<633667C792305423FE1F074BB65A95A6>] $�30 � �0p �X����,�f2{#� ����g+|:����X��9�r)�8p��g�```����Tn2��])��qɄE�H� �EgL_�m�]x���r�D��@�@�;�U�Jl�|���I���Z���z�lP��U�uw�F��):� d#I�j {������hfGRo�e��l�Zw�Ð5s�l��.��W�� of the Raman peak at 955 cm-11589 is recovered (not shown). More on Raman Scattering The Raman effect arises when a photon is incident on a molecule and interacts with the electric dipole of the molecule. 153 0 obj 1 0 obj << A Raman spectrometer was deployed on the Viking landers in 1972 and in other missions. Krishnan see “feeble fluorescence” from neat solvents. EMU-CNRS International School: Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Earth Sciences and cultural Heritage : 14 -16 th of june 2012 GRATING THEORY: 2 single slits ( ) = = = = ( ) ( ) ×× = × = × = EMU-CNRS International School: Applications of Raman Spectroscopy ( ) ( ) × × = × = × ( ) m ×) EMU-CNRS International School: Applications of Raman Spectroscopy. 0000000953 00000 n /ColorSpace<> <> Molecular vibrations and normal modes 1.2. ��g �e`�Y ����,"���"�d�*[��@r����H�y,�:L�Xp}(ePc�`s�t�����`Ű�7�i��S93��AG1�� �YB� Infrared and Raman spectroscopy involve the study of the interaction of radiation with molecular vibrations but differs in the manner in which photon energy is transferred to the molecule by changing its vibrational state. Raman Scattering (light scattering involving vibrational transition) 3) Optical Rotation: Change of phase of light incident on sample (rotation of polarization) Let’s work on describing absorption. As discussed, when an atom or molecule is brought into an electric field E , an electric dipole moment µ is induced in the system. Figure 5 shows a basic schematic of the Raman spectrometer you will use in the lab. An In Situ Raman spectroscopic study The influence of the reactive mixture on the structure of the active phase has been explored by in situ Raman spectroscopy directly performed on the activated catalysis. Similar to IR‑spectroscopy, fundamental vibrations of molecules are examined which is important for a complete understanding of chemical reactions. Raman spectroscopy is a technique for observing vibrational, rotational, electronic and other low-frequency modes in a system. endstream What are the axes? selection rules), but practical aspects are usually disregarded. 0000043684 00000 n With these course notes, the author hopes to fill this gap and include information about Raman instrumentation and how it is interpreted. using raman spectroscopy is a step by ir spectra of your textbook notes and verification. 0000045184 00000 n … Raman spectroscopy is non-destructive, requires almost no sample preparation and is exquisitely sensitive to crystalline structure and the presence of minor components. Surface enhanced (resonance) Raman … Nobel Prize in Physics 1930. Thus, the in situ Raman spectra presented in Figure 3, peaks at 2855 and 2957 cm-1 and respectively assigned to the symmetric and antisymmetric stretching modes of CH 3 are /Rotate 0 /H [ 1199 709 ] 0 In Raman scattering, the frequency of the scattered light is shifted from the frequency of the incident beam. 152 0 obj /E 47310 >> NONLINEAR SPECTROSCOPY 11.1. XI.2.-800 -400 0 400 800 Raman frequency (cm-1) Raman intensity -> 22148 22176 22479 22624 22720 22938 23156 23252 23397 23700 23728 790 790 762 762 459 459 314 314 218 218 Fig. /Info 141 0 R Raman spectroscopy 1.4. x��XKo�F���#T�}��!��Hib����ez8�� ���YʑH{�=X������ͬ��gq~~vs��R�|.>^^�o� � �J�^��Ķ�N�� �� ��/ �`B�����qus!� �>�N'g�(�����}d��N�P Why Raman spectroscopy? /DA(/Helv 0 Tf 0 g ) /BCLPrivAnnots <> /Prev 319663 Resonance Raman Spectroscopy; Theory and Experiment 2013.11.13 Carl-Zeiss Lecture 2 IPHT Jena Hiro-o HAMAGUCHI Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, College of Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan . They may be reproduced without need for permission. Raman, Fluorescence and IR Scattering Absorption and emission Absorption. XI.2. Yes, a Raman spectrum is a spectral “fingerprint”. Raman spectroscopy also has important scientific applications in studying molecular structure. The laser excites the bonds of a molecule, which generates measurable scattered light to identify the material in question. ] stream endobj Figure R-1 shows an example of five molecules – Acetone, Ethanol, Dimethyl Sulfoxide, Ethyl Acetate, and Toluene, with peaks from specific functional groups marked. Raman scattering (or the Raman effect) was discovered in 1928 by V. C. Raman who won the Nobel prize for his work. 1923 – Inelastic light scattering is predicted by A. Smekel 1928 – Landsberg and Mandelstam see unexpected frequency shifts in scattering from quartz 1928 – C.V. Raman and K.S. Infrared spectroscopy. /Linearized 1.0 Raman spectroscopy is a promising investigative and diagnostic tool that can assist in uncovering the molecular basis of disease and provide objective, quantifiable molecular information for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. 2. Introduction Spectroscopy comes from the Latin “spectron” for spirit or ghost and the Greek “σκοπιεν” for to see. Radiated power is related to the electron acceleration, ��2�{j,�"#��aԿzm����C�W����^�^+�� �@Cl��*������/A��BPj��nh�T���Ј=@�UP� ���Ԑ�@�vC�I��.�L%���Z�0 This chapter provides a basic understanding of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instrumentation and the factors that need to be considered in its use to characterize the structure and reactivity of soil colloids, and a discussion of Raman spectroscopy. endobj xref trailer Bis zur Einführung moderner Komponenten wie Laser, Halbleiterdetektoren, empfindlicher Verstärker und computergestützter Auswertung, war die Aufnahme von Raman-Spektren schwierig und deshalb wenig … 0000044385 00000 n 4 0 obj Variable instrument parameters are few, spectral manipulation is minimal and a simple interpret- It provides a valuable guide to assist with teaching Raman spectroscopy which is gaining attention in (analytical) chemistry, and as a consequence, teaching programs have followed. /LastModified (D:20050512193601) Resonance Raman spectroscopy: 10-29 m2 Non-resonant Raman spectroscopy: 10-33 m2 Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering: 10-? 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