Retrofit design is based on many factors. San Jose, Sunnyvale, Fremont, Oakland, Berkeley and Surrounding Areas
The data show that at many places along the San Andreas Fault, we have gone past the average time between large earthquakes. The San Andreas fault caused the biggest earthquakes in California with an approximate magnitude 7.9 in 1857 (Southern California) and 1906 (San Francisco). It forms the tectonic boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, and its motion is right-lateral strike-slip (horizontal). The Hayward fault is a 90 kilometer long crack in the Earth's crust that travels through the San Francisco Bay area. The transform boundary initiated about 30 million years ago when a spreading ridge separating the Pacific and Farallon Plates intersected with the North American continental crust near what is now Los Angeles, California (Fig. According to a new study, the Hayward fault line that runs under Oakland, California is believed to be more dangerous than the infamous San Andreas fault line that spans Southern California.. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. Other articles where Hayward Fault is discussed: California: Relief: The Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Gabriel fault zone in metropolitan Los Angeles have produced several major earthquakes, though the destructive quake centred in the Los Angeles suburb of Northridge in 1994 occurred along one of the San Andreasâs largerâ¦ The Hayward Fault is an offset of the San Andreas Fault system that dominates the landforms of eastern San Francisco Bay. This means that earthquakes as large as M=7.4 are possible on both sides of San Francisco Bay, rather than just on the San Andreas, as we had thought before. Bond #SC6334450
Three earthquakes occurred within a 70-year period between 1838 and 1906, but there were no earthquakes during the 500 years before that, and there have been no earthquakes in the 110 years since 1906. The entire San Andreas fault system is more than 800 miles long and extends to depths of at least 10 miles within the Earth. Near fault shear strain rates are 0.6 ± 0.1 Î¼strain/yr (engineering) with direction N47°W ± 9. The corrosion problem of ACQ treated lumber. When it stops, your body moves as it is pushed forward. Scientists are now saying that the âBig Oneâ in California may not be caused by the San Andreas fault line, but by the Hayward Bay fault line. The San Andreas and Cascadia fault have a potentially deadlier counterpart lurking in the East Bay region of Northern California. 1 A). Comparing the data from sites like Wrightwood and Frazier Mountain, earthquake scientists are working to understand the pattern of large earthquakes – asking questions such as how typical was the large (M7.9) earthquake in 1857? The plate is moving slowly all the time, but the edges move in fits and starts. Cartoon sketch of the Pacific Plate-North American Plate boundary showing the San Andreas Fault. When the ground stops suddenly the house wants to keep on going and slides off the foundation. The stuck section slips, and the edge of each block catches up to the rest of the plate. The ground consistently moves a few millimeters each year, pulling apart sidewalks, pipelines and other structures that sit astride the fault. In 2014, a paleoseismology site at Hael Creek on the Maacama fault reiterated the results found on the Hayward fault to the south – creeping with infrequent large earthquakes, and a large one expected in the not-too-distant future. Fault-plane reflections reveal that two of these faults, the San Andreas and Hayward, dip toward each other below seismogenic depths at 60?? Like the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989, the San Andreas Fault was responsible for â¦ While the San Andreas fault that triggered the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake has become ingrained in California culture, new â¦ The Hayward Fault is 40 miles long and about 8 miles deep and trends along the east side of San Francisco Bay. This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay. The “zone” part of the name means it’s a system with the main fault and many sub-parallel faults that all together take up the motion between the two plates. Drop, Cover and Hold On sign. (Credit: Kate Scharer, USGS. A retrofit prevents this kind of movement. Click the â¦ The San Andreas Fault and the San Francisco Bay Area This image shows San Andreas Lake and Crystal Springs reservoir from the air, looking SouthEast from HERE. It has an average repeat cycle of 140 years. In other words, in 11 more years we will have exceeded the historic maximum span of 160 years (U.C. There are only two large known historic earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault in southern CA, the most recent in 1857, and before that one in 1812. But focusing only on avoiding an earthquake doesn’t address most of the effects from the shaking. In detail, the fault is a complex zone of crushed and broken rock from a few hundred feet to a mile wide. Many smaller faults branch from and join the San Andreas fault zone. The new San Pablo Bay link between the Rodgers Creek Fault (which extends out of the image to the upper left to Santa Rosa) and the Hayward fault (which joins the Calaveras Fault out of the image to the lower right) is orange. IT IS NOT INTENDED AS A GUIDE FOR DIY RETROFITS. The threat to San Francisco from the Hayward fault was recognized by A. C. Lawson in 1908 in Report of the State Earthquake Commission, The California earthquake of April 18, 1906, p. 447: "The foot of Market Street, San Francisco, is about midway between the San Andreas rift and the fault scarp upon which movement occurred in 1868. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) through California. Scientists have a good big picture understanding of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ). The average time interval between the 5 most recent earthquakes is a little shorter, about 140 years. The relative motion between these two tectonic plates is 50 mm/yr (about 2 inches/yr), but that rate is distributed across all the faults that are part of the SAFZ. No one can predict earthquakes, so what does the science really say? Public domain.). This means that earthquakes as large as M=7.4 are possible on both sides of San Francisco Bay, rather than just on the San Andreas, as we had thought before. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the central to southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. (Public domain.). Map of faults in southern California. 1. . CHART SHOWING THE HISTORY OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES ALONG THE CASCADIA EARTHQUAKE TIME LINE, MIRROR IMAGE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CASCADIA FAULT SHOWN ON THE RIGHT AND THE SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE ON THE LEFT THAT KILLED OVER 260,000 PEOPLE. Investigating past earthquakes to inform the future. Let's start in southern California and work our way north. Along the southernmost San Andreas, from Palm Springs to the Salton Sea, earthquakes happen infrequently, about every 200-300 years. Over 155,000 housing unites will suffer enough damage to become uninhabitable and 350,000 people will be displaced. 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